Padams & Javalis

Guru Dr. Subhashini Parthasarathy
Practical Training On Singing Of Padams And Javalis


Padam is a musical monologue which resembles a kirtana in structure and propagates the sentiment of divine love through the innumerable aspects of nayika- nayaka Bhava. Although strictly a dance form, yet the padams are sung in concerts of art music, on account of their musical excellence. The Padam has the sections Pallavi, anupallavi and multiple charanas. The music is slow, dignified and flows in a graceful manner. Some the Tamil Padams are set in a slightly faster tempo. A sustained balance is maintained between the music and the lyrics of the Padams. Kshetrajna is the most prolific and popular composer of Telugu Padams followed by several others such as Muvanallur Sabhapati Ayyar, Sarangapani, Swati Tirunal in Malayalam and Manipravalam and Ghanam Krishna Iyer, Vaithiswaran Kovil Subbarama Iyer in Tamil. Apart from these there have been a host of Padam composers in different languages . 

Javalis are one of the most scintillating types of musical composition which found its way into Karnatic music in and around the 19th century. Over the course of time, Javali has become an integral part of the repertoire of Karnatic musicians and classical dancers. Javalis are songs of light and pleasing nature, and are a treatment of mundane love as compared to the intense Madhura bhakti inherent in Padams. Dharmapuri Subbarayar and Tirupanandal Pattabhiramayya are some of the most popular composers of javalis. Javalis are rendered in a quicker tempo as compared to padams, and are embedded with attractive  melodies. 

We will be dealing with two Telugu padams, one Tamil padam, and three  Javalis. 

In each of the classes a brief musical analysis of the Padam and javali composition will be dealt with, followed by an outline of the meaning of the lyrics and the rendering of the composition.


This module is for students who have learnt a good number (atleast about 20-25) of kritis already.

No. of session: 10 (1 hour /session) 

Class size: Individual

Session 1

Rama rama——   Bhairavi — Adi tala— Kshetrajna   

A brief biography on Kshetrajna with the musical  and lyrical aspects followed by the Pallavi of the padam. 

Session 2 and 3

The anupallavi and charanam will be taught. 

The whole composition will be rendered.

Session 4  and 5

Iddariloni—- Kambhoji— Misra Chapu— Muvvanallur Sabhapatayya

A brief biography and some characteristic features followed by Pallavi and anupallavi of the Padam

Charanam and summing up of the Padam.

Session 6 and 7

Nittirayil— Pantuvarali— Adi- Ghanam Krishna Iyer

Brief details on Tamil padakaras and rendering of Pallavi and anupallavi.

Charanam and rendition of the whole composition

Session 8

Samayamidhe— Behag— Rupakam— Patnam Subramanya Iyer (Javali)

The salient features of the Javali will be discussed with a brief highlight about the composer.

Session 9

Taru maru— Nattakurinji- Adi— Pattabhiramayya (Javali)

This javali is unique because it brings out the view of the nayaka who thinks of consoling his beloved whom he is guilty of hurting.The details about pallavi,anupallavi and charanam will be taught.

Session 10 

Yamuna Kalyani- Adi— Dharmapuri Subbarayar (Javali)